16, 2017: Students with Autism are more cautious readers,
according to new research out this month. Tracking eye movements,
researchers examined natural reading in groups of students with and
without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Students with ASD interpret
sentence construction at similar skill and speed with non ASD peers.
However, they take longer to read sentences on subsequent passes as
they do not skip target work (words skipped by students without ASD),
suggesting that they adopt a more caustious reading strategy. Thus,
they take longer to evaluation sentence interpretation. Howard, P.
et al (2017 Jan). "Benchmark eye movement effects during natural reading
in autism spectrum disorder." Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Vol 43(1), 109-127.
6, 2016: It stands to reason that a students' "grit"
(consistency of interests and perseverance) would impact academic
performance and grades. Researchers looked at high school students
and compared their grit to other issues such as self-control and self-regulation.
While these factors did correlate with measures of grit, it was students'
perseverance of effort, not the consistency of interest which predicted
Muenks, K. et al (2016). "How
true is grit? Assessing its relations to high school and college students’
personality characteristics, self-regulation, engagement, and achievement."
Journal of Educational Psychology, Dec 05 preview, nps.
16, 2016: Peers play a strong role in gender identity as
it develops through middle school years. Researchers compared "between"
and "within" gender peer influence on gender identity in 7th and 8th
grade students in a longitudinal study. They found that between gender
peer bias and pressure for conformity was a strong influence on gender
identity. Interestingly, while the middle school students felt pressure
for gender conformity from peers of the gender different than their
own, there appeared to be no such influence from same gendered peers
for gender identity during this developmental period.
Kornienko, O., et al. (2016). " Peer influence on gender identity
development in adolescence." Developmental Psychology, Vol 52(10),
Oct , 1578-1592.
13, 2016: Results were recently released from a long-term
study showing the relationship between early child care and end of
high school behaviors. Tracking 1200 children for 18 years, here's
what was found: (1) Fewer hours in child care was related to admission
into more selective colleges. (2) More experience in center-type
(vs private) was linked to higher class ranking in high school and
admission to more selective colleges. (3) For girls, more center-type
care was also linked to less risk taking. (4). Higher quality child
care predicted higher high school academic scores and admission to
Vandell, D; Burchinal, M; & Pierce, K. (2016) Early child care
and adolescent functioning at the end of high school: Results from
the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Developmental
Psychology, Vol 52(10), Oct, 1634-1645.
September 13, 2016: Despite localized efforts by many school
districts, the US education system remains frustrated with the levels
of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) achievement in
its students. Researchers are now looking at ways to manipulate
social structures surrounding these disciplines at an early age, in
a attempt to increase participation. A new study out this month saw
some promise. Researchers introduced math and spatial tasks
to preschoolers (4 - 5 year olds). They had groups of children
working on tasks alone and others in small assigned groups.
What they found was that when children worked on math tasks in small
groups they persisted longer, did more accurate work, reported high
self-efficacy and had higher interest in the task than those students
who worked alone. Based on this and other similar research,
it appears that incorporating social factors, such as group membership,
into STEM curricula may boost student motivation.
A., et al. (2016). Social Group Membership Increases STEM Engagement
Among Preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, Sep 5 preview, nps
8, 2016: Looking to increase positive affect in your
students? Want to reduce boredom and dread in your school? A
new study out in the Apr 21st edition of "Emotion" shows
that walking (not exercise, per se, but just plain old
"incidental ambulation" as they call it) boosts mood,
especially reduces the effects of low interest...overrides
boredom and dread. So, WHY do we have students sit all class
period?? Get the students out of those desks and moving!
Miller, J. & Krizan, Z. (2016) "Walking Facilitates
Positive Affect (Even When Expecting the Opposite)",
Emotion, Apr 21 preview, nps.
8, 2016: A new study out shows the results of
examining white-matter differences along with neuron
connectiveness measures in children with reading
disabilities. Other cognitive abilities being equal, brain
images show that white matter in a region associated with
reading (left arcuate fasciculus) has altered structure in
children with reading disability. Interesting, they also
measure the degree of neuron connectiveness in this area and
found low connectiveness scores in both children with a
reading disability AND in children with superior pseudoword
reading ability. The researchers concluded that this paradox
of connectedness associated with both these groups indicates
that this area involved in reading has great variation in
white matter maturation rates during this initial time of
reading acquisition. Christodoulou, J., et al (2015)
"Relation of White-Matter Microstructure to Reading Ability
and Disability in Beginning Readers." Neuropsychology, Mar 7
9, 2016: While there have been studies conducted
measuring the effects of emotional exhaustion among
teachers, most of them have focused on the effect it has on
teachers - performance and career engagement. A new study
out this month looked at the relationship between teacher
emotional exhaustion and students' educational outcomes.
Using 380 teachers and 8,000 4th grade students researchers
measured teacher emotional exhaustion and school grades,
standardized achievement test school and school
satisfaction, as well as noncognitive outcomes. They found a
strong negative correlation among all of them. Student
achievement suffers as teacher emotional exhaustion
increases. Arens, A. et al. (2016). "Relations Between
Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion and Students' Educational
Outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, Jan 18 edition
10, 2016: The largest gender disparity in STEM
courses is found in Computer Science. Unfortunately girls
are stereotyped out of computer science at a young age.
Researchers have recently found that we can alter girls'
interest in Computer Science simply by changing the physical
classroom environment in our schools. Schools where
classrooms were specifically set out to be more
"girl-friendly" and promote women in Computer Science, found
a higher incidence of girls' interest in Computer Science
and more of a sense of belonging. Therefore, it is
imperative that schools begin a conscious attempt to
increase girls interest in Computer Science by removing the
traditional gender stereotypes which signal to girls that
they do not belong. Master, A. et al. (2015, Aug 17).
Computing Whether She Belongs: Stereotypes Undermine Girls'
Interest and Sense of Belonging in Computer Science. Journal
of Educational Psychology, preview, nps
2, 2015: Executive Function (EF) is frequently
studied due to its involvement with learning and learning
challenges (particularly for persons with ADD and /or head
trauma). Executive Function, our ability to maintain control
of our actions and our thoughts, is mainly a function of the
prefrontal cortex - the region behind your forehead.
Research released this month tracked adolescent twins from
teens through their early 20's to see how stable EF is
during this time period and whether variance in function is
more likely to be from genetics or environmental factors.
Tracking 420 sets of twins for 6 years, they found that EF
is relatively stable by age 17 and that genetics appears to
play the biggest role in variation. So while environment can
play a small role, most executive function appears to be
something inherited. Friedman, N. et al. (2015, Nov 30).
"Stability and Change in Executive Function Abilities From
Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Twin
Study." Developmental Psychology, preview, nps.
15, 2015: Young persons who perceive themselves as
being racial discriminated against are at higher risk of
depression. A new study recently released looked at the
long-term consequences of perceived racial discrimination,
as well as factors that may act as a buffer. The researchers
tracked African American and Latino youth through
adolescence. They found that those in particular who felt
ethnic or racial discrimination from peers were the most
likely to suffer depression with greater symptoms. However,
those who began high school with high levels of positive
racial affect were at a much lower risk for depression over
time. So positive racial affect appears to buffer the
effects of perceived racial discrimination. Stein, G. et al
(2015). "A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived
Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority
Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive
Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity." Journal of
Developmental Psychology, Nov 16 preview, nps.
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